The Byzantine Empire, also known as the Eastern Roman Empire and Byzantium, represented the continuation of the Roman Empire in the East during Late Antiquity and into the Middle Ages. Its capital, Constantinople (modern day Istanbul), reinaugerated from Byzantium by Constantine I (The Great) in AD 324, became the largest and wealthiest city in Europe between the 5th and 7th centuries, and again between the 9th and 12th centuries AD. The Byzantine Empire existed from the fall of the Roman Empire in the West during the 5th century AD and continued until the fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Turks in the 15th century AD. For much of its existence, the Byzantine Empire was the most powerful in Europe in terms of its economic, cultural, and military attributes. During the early period, its coinage consisted of mainly two types, the gold solidus and bronze coins of marked value, in later times it comprised silver issues and small bronzes.

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